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Rug Mountain Dictionary





Abrash -A terminology used to describe the variation of colour in oriental hand knotted rugs often found in nomadic or tribal designs.

Acrylic -A synthetic man-made fibre used to produce rugs, clothing and yarn etc, it’s a soft material which can mimic wool or cotton.

Afshar -A stiff cotton hardwearing rug made in southern Iran.

All Over -A repeat pattern in the design of a rug.

Aniline Dyes -The first artificial dyes used to colour rugs in the 1850's, however these dyes tend to fade when exposed to sunlight.

Antique -A rug which is over 50 years old.

Arabesque -An elaborate rug design based around flowers, fruits and other natural elements.

Arte Silke -A soft synthetic material which is a cheaper substitute for real silk.

Asymmetrical Knot -Asymmetrical also know as Persian is a style of rug and a knot is a weave technique where the knot encircles the warp.


Bamboo -A steamed hollow plant which is very durable and often used manufacturing paper, rugs, textiles and flooring.

Blend -Two or more types of fibre blended together.

Boteh -A teardrop design which originates from Iran.

Bounce -A yarn which displays a textured loop pile.


Carding -A process where the fibres get untangled before they are spun.

Cartoon -A drawing or a sketch design used as a template.

Combing -A process where short fibres are untangled prior to being spun.

Contemporary -A modern rug under 25 years old.

Cotton -A spun fibre which is sourced and produced from the cotton plant.


Dhurrie -A casual cotton or woolen flat rug made in India.

Dyes -Dyes are used in colouring rugs. Natural dyes are made from plants, minerals or animals.


Field -The area inside the rug borders which is the central design of the theme.

Flat Weave -A rug which has no pile or is knotted, meaning they are wooven on the loom.

Flotaki -A Hand made shaggy rugs, the name Flotaki originates from Greece.

Fringe -The hanging threads at the end of the rug. Knotted fringes prevent the threads from untangling


Guard Borders -A guard border separates the border from the field (the main design).

Gul Farangi -A repeat rose design throughout the rug.

Gul Hinnai -A repeat henna flower design throughout the rug.


Hand Hooked -Where the yarn is pulled through a woven fabric such as linen or hemp using a hook.

Hand Knotted -A hand Knotted pile is produced as the knots are wrapped around the warps.

Hand Made -Rugs which are made by hand not a machine.

Hand Tufted -Very similar to hand hooked however the loops are cut for a smooth level finish.


Jute -A plant fibre which is often used to manufacturer rope, carpets and rugs. A very durable and sturdy material.


Kilim -A flat woven rug which comes with no pile.

Knot -Knots are where the weave is tied over the wafts both symmetrical and asymmetrical.

Knot Density -A number of knots within a square inch.


Loom -A structure for knotting and weaving rugs or other textiles.


Machine Made Rugs -Rugs which are woven by a machine.

Medallion -The central decoration in an oriental rug.


Nap -The direction of a fully (shaggy) surface.

Natural Dyes -Natural dyes which are sourced from minerals, plants and animals. .

Nylon -A durable synthetic soft fibre.


Olefin -A durable and stain resistant man made material synthetic fibre.


Persian Knot -A durable and stain resistant man made material synthetic fibre.

Pictorial -A pictorial design which is often a person, place or an animal.

Pile -The weaving area produced by tying rug fibres together.

Polyester -A synthetic material used to manufacturer rugs and carpets.

Primary Backing Hardwearing fibres woven together to create a strong backing for the rug.


Seagrass -Seagrass is a plant fibre which is found in the sea. Seagrass is stain resistant and very durable.

Secondary Backing - This offer further protection and is bonded to the primary backing..

Shaggy Rug - A thick deep shag pile made from either synthetic or natural fibres. A flotaki is a type of shaggy rug.

Silk - A soft and shiny fibre made from silkworms.

Synthetic Dyes - Synthetic dyes are man made dyes used to colour textiles and rugs


Warp -The length of the loom created when the knots are tied together.

Weave -This is created when intertwining the weft threads through the warp.

Weft -The weft is the width of the yarn intertwined over and under the warp threads.

Wool -Wool is sourced from shearing sheep and offers great durability and elasticity.


Yarn -Yarn is the thread that is used when weaving the rugs together.